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The COSETI Observatory

    R* = Rate of star formation.


    s = Fraction with good suns.

    p = Fraction with planets.

    e = Fraction earth-like.

    l = Fraction with life.

  • The subscript o accounts for the matching of electromagnetic transmitting and receiving technologies.

    i = Fraction with intelligence.


    c = Fraction wishing to communicate.

    o = Fraction using optical means.

    L = Lifetime of civilization.

  • If all ETIs use laser technology to transmit and we use microwave technology to receive, the number of detectable civilizations falls to zero!

    The Modified Drake Equation

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